复合宾语是什么意思?

外语出国  |  教育科学

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2016-11-12

2016-11-12最佳答案

宾语补语可以是形容词、名词、现在分词、过去分词、介词短语和副词,也可以是动词不定式,或是从句。宾语补足语结构在 SEFC 中运用很广泛,而且动词 make , keep , leave , find 和 feel 在新教材中出现率很高,也是学习中的难点。

一.宾语补足语

  英语中,常对宾语的状态、特征、动作进行说明的称之为宾语补足语,构成“主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语”这一重要句型。能用作宾语补足语的词或短语很多,下面是中学课本中出现过的:

  【1】名词作宾补  He called it Micky Mouse .   She found him a very clever boy .

  注意:常用的动词有 name , call , elect , choose , appoint 等。如果宾语补足语表示的是独一无二的职务名词时,该名词前不用冠词。 They elected him president of the USA .

  【2】形容词作宾补  He had a strange way of making his class lively and interesting .   They found the book instructive .

  We must keep the classroom clean every day .

  【3】副词作宾补  When you have finished your experiment , please tidy the lab and put everything back in the cupboards .   

  I followed him in .   Last Sunday I saw you out with your sister .

  【4】介词短语作宾补

  To her surprise , she found herself in a different world . I found everything in good order . He thought himself above others .

  【5】不定式作宾补,常有以下两种形式

  A . 不定式前带 to  The villagers didn't allow them to do this .   He asked me to do some shopping for him .

  注意:常用的动词有 ask , tell , beg , force , allow , wish , want , expect , advise , permit , order , 等等。

  B . 不定式前不带 to  I saw all the glasses fall off onto the floor .   I made him change his mind at last .

  注意:常用的动词有使役动词 have , let , make 和感官动词 see , watch , notice , hear , 等等。

  【6】现在分词作宾补

  We can see them flying along the river .   I saw him crossing the street .

  注意:常用的动词有 hear , watch , notice , find , smell , feel , keep , set , leave , get , 等等。

  【7】过去分词作宾语

  I had my machine repaired .   I was thinking of this when I heard my name called .

  注意以上三种非谓主事动词用作宾补的区别

  A . 从宾语与宾补的关系上看。动词不定式与动词的-ing形式与宾语在逻辑上是主谓关系,而过去分词与宾语在逻辑上是动宾关系。 We found him cross the street . 我们看到他走过了街道。(= He crossed the street . )

  We found him crossing the street . (= He was crossing the street . ) We had the topic discussed . (= The topic is discussed . )我们让别人来谈论这个主题。

  B . 从意义上看。动词不定式表示动作的全过程;动词的-ing形式表示动作处于进行状态;而过去分词表示已经完成的动作。  

  I heard him sing the song . 我听见他唱了那首歌。(指动作的全过程) I heard him singing the song . 我听见他正在唱歌。(指动作正在发生)  I heard the song sung(by him) . 我听见他唱过那首歌。(指动作已经完成)

  【8】to be短语用作宾补

  The people had considered him (to be) a great leader , and a wise , kind and honest man .

  I believe him (to be) an honest man .  注意有时 to be 可以省略。

  【9】由 as 构成的短语作宾补

  We regard labour as a matter of honour .   You surely can't consider him as a selfish man .

 【10】疑问代词 / 副词 + 不定式作宾补。

  Could you please show me how to use the computer ?  He really didn't ask us what to do next .

  【11】有时宾语是从句、不定式等后接形容词(名词等)作宾补,为了使句子平衡,须用 it 作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语放在句尾。  They found it strange that no one took the money .  I felt it my duty to report it to the headmaster .





二.make , keep , leave , find 和feel带复合宾语结构

〖1〗 keep 在 SVOC 中的释义是“使某人或某事保持在某一状态”。

1 . Keep+O+Prepositional phrase I'll keep the box in the shade so that the sun doesn't burn the little plants .

2 . keep+O+Past participle We'll keep you informed of the flood in the Changjiang River .

3 . keep+O+Adjective Please keep the room clean all the time .

4 . keep+O+Present participle Mother kept me studying during the summer holiday ; for I failed my maths exam .

5 . keep+O+Adverb You most keep this medicine away from the child . 这药要放在儿童够不到的地方。

〖2〗 leave 在 SVOC 中的释义是“让某人或某事处于某种状态”。

1 . leave+O+Clause Leave her where she is . Don't touch my writing table ; leave it as it is .

2 . leave+O+Past participle Before the final exam , he left nothing undone .

3 . leave+O+Present participle Don't leave water running to clean vegetables .

4 . leave+O+Infinitive Leave the future to take care of itself .

5 . Leave+O+Adverb Someone has left the bathroom tap on . 有人忘了关浴室的水龙头。

〖3〗 find 在 SVOC 中的释义是“发现,觉得”或者“发现……处于某种状态”。

1 . find+O+Adjective … but I find idioms and useful expressions hard to learn .

2 . find+O+Noun I find him a very clever man .

3 . find+O+Present participle Dusk found him crying in the street .

4 . find+O+Past participle He found his hometown greatly changed .

5 . find+O+Prepositional phrase They found him already in the care of a doctor .

6 . find+O+Adverb He hurried there , but found them all out .

find 在 SVOC 中的宾语如果是动词不定式或者是动名词,就必须用先词 it 表示,然后将真 正的宾语置于补语之后。

7 . find+it+adj . +doing sth . We found it useless trying to persuade him to go with us .

8 . find+it+adj . +to do sth . She found it hard to keep a diary in English .

〖4〗 feel 在 SVOC 中释义是“感到,认为”,如果其宾语是动词不定式,也必须用先行词 it 表示。

Feel it an honor to speak here